Xin Dynasty 新朝


Chinese Name: 新朝

English Name: The Xin Dynasty; Xin Chao

Duration: About 9 AD – 23 AD

Other name: Xin Mang 新莽

King: Wang Mang 王莽

Xin Dynasty 新朝
The Xin Dynasty 新朝

Brief Introduction

The Xin Dynasty 新朝 (from January 15, 9 AD to October 6, 23 AD) was established by Wang Mang 王莽, a foreign relative of the Western Han Dynasty 西汉, following the Western Han Dynasty.
In December of the first year (January 15, 9 AD), Wang Mang abandoned Liu Ying 刘婴 as the Duke of An Ding 安定公 and changed the country name to new. The capital, Chang’an 常安 (the site of Chang’an City in the Han Dynasty in Xi’an today), is known as Xin Dynasty in history.

Xin Dynasty 新朝
Wang Mang in Xin Dynasty 王莽

The Xin Dynasty pioneered the success of claiming the emperor through yielding in Chinese history. Because the traditional concept despises the yielding throne as a way of transferring political power and prefers to obtain political power through war and revolution, Wang Mang has always been mistaken as a “hypocrite” by Chinese historians.

Major Historical Events

Wang’s Rise 王氏崛起

Since Emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty 汉成帝 in the Western Han Dynasty, Liu’s power gradually fell into the hands of Wang’s group with queen Wang Zhengjun 王政君 of Xiaoyuan as the core.

Xin Dynasty 新朝
Wang Mang in Xin Dynasty 王莽

Emperor AI 哀帝 died in 1 BC, and Emperor Ping of Han 汉平帝, who was nine years old, ascended the throne. Empress Dowager assisted the government and took Wang Mang as the chief Sima. Wang Mang has been in power for 24 years.

Establish the Xin Dynasty 建立新朝

Liu Qing 刘庆, the Duke of Leling 乐陵侯, said that the current emperor was young, so Wang Mang should be allowed to “do the emperor’s business”. All the ministers said it should be so. Soon, Emperor Ping died prematurely and wanted to choose a successor. He chose the youngest Liu Ying 刘婴, who was only two years old.

In September 2007, after suppressing the rebellion, Wang Mang thought he was gaining momentum and received the help of heaven. This year, Liu Jing 刘京, the Marquis of Guangrao 广饶, and others said that “the fake emperor was real immediately”, saying that it was the will of the gods.

Xin Dynasty 新朝
Liu Ying 刘婴

Therefore, Wang Mang styled himself as emperor and changed the country’s name to “Xin Dynasty”.

The New Policy in Xin Dynasty of Wang Mang 王莽新政

Wang Mang implemented the new policy throughout the country. There are the following points:

He ordered the farmland in the world to be renamed “King’s field”, and the maidservants to be renamed “private ownership” and prohibited trading in Xin Dynasty.

Manage industry and commerce, strictly control prices and strengthen taxation, and implement economic monopoly.

Repeated changes in the currency system have led to a wide variety of currencies and complex conversions, resulting in great social and economic chaos.

Change the name of the official system and indiscriminately add seals and rewards. And waged war against all ethnic groups.

Xin Dynasty 新朝
conduct state affairs 处理国事

Heavy taxes and servitude and cruel punishment made the people complain. Coupled with successive years of famine and soaring prices, it finally caused a nationwide peasant uprising.

Battle of Lan Xiang 蓝乡之战

The battle of Lan Xiang took place in December of the third year (22nd year) of Emperor Mang of Xin. It was an attack by the greenwood army against Wang Mang’s army in Lanxiang 蓝乡 (now Biyang 泌阳) during the peasant uprising war.

In December of the 22nd year of the third year of the emperor of the earth, Xinshi 新市, Pinglin 平林, Xiajiang 下江, and Chongling 舂林 joined forces. Morale was greatly boosted and they launched an all-around attack on Zhen Fu’s army 甄阜. The rebel troops were divided into six units. They attacked Lanxiang at night, robbed all the supplies of Zhen Fu‘s army, blocked its retreat, and attacked its main force from the southeast and southwest.

Xin Dynasty 新朝

Zhen Fu’s army was defeated and fled. The rebels pursued and killed more than 20000 people and killed Zhen Fu. In this war, the rebel army won a complete victory, which brought the anti recklessness struggle of the greenwood army into a new stage.

Kunyang War 昆阳大战

The battle of Kunyang was a strategic decisive battle between the two armies in the Central Plains at the end of the new dynasty. The main battlefield of this war is on the front line of Kunyang 昆阳 (now Ye County, Henan Province 河南叶县), so it is called the battle of Kunyang. The battle of Kunyang is one of the famous battle examples in Chinese history. It determines the national fortune and rise and fall of the Central Plains Dynasty in the future. It is a far-reaching strategic decisive battle in Chinese history.

Xin Dynasty 新朝

In the battle of Kunyang, Liu Xiu刘秀, as a partial general, was famous all over the world. The battle of Kunyang was not only the key battle for Xuanhan to defeat Xinmang, but also laid the foundation for the rebels to finally overthrow Wang Mang’s rule. Gu Yanwu顾炎武, a great thinker in the Ming Dynasty, praised Liu Xiu in the battle of Kunyang: “destroy the great enemy immediately and make the world peace in an instant”.

Xin Dynasty 新朝
Gu Yanwu 顾炎武

In the battle of Kunyang, the number of soldiers of Wang Mang’s army was known as one million, while the total number of rebels guarding the city and foreign aid was only 20000. It is no accident that the rebel army was able to achieve a brilliant victory in completely annihilating the enemy under such a wide gap in military strength.

Important Influences

Nationalization of land

Wang Mang declared that the land at that time belonged to the state and the people were not allowed to buy or sell it privately. If there are local tyrants, squires, or nobles who occupy too many land resources, they must unconditionally distribute them equally to the public and let them work and farm.

Abolish the slave trade

Xin Dynasty 新朝
Slave trade 奴隶买卖

Because of the nationalization of land, almost every family had land at that time, which also led to a shortage of manpower. When Wang Mang learned about it, he announced the abolition of slavery at that time. He announced that the country was no longer allowed to buy and sell people and slaves, which made the whole country move. There will be no idle people in Chang’an for a long time when the wasteland is widely opened, and those who do nothing all day will be hungry in winter because of too little farming and mining.

Encourage science and invention

Many people may not know that Wang Mang was the first emperor to support and dissect the human body himself. He has made indelible contributions and support to the research of Chinese medicine.

Xin Dynasty 新朝
The earliest vernier caliper 游标卡尺

Xin Dynasty

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