Sui Dynasty 隋朝


Chinese Name: 隋朝

English Name: Siu Dynasty, Sui Chao

Other Name:Sui Yang 隋杨, Great Sui Dynasty 大隋王朝

Duration: About 581 AD – 618 AD

King: Yang Zhong 杨忠, Yang Jian 杨坚, Yang Guang 杨广, Yang Zhao 杨昭

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
Territory Map of Sui Dynasty 隋朝疆域图

Brief Introduction

The Sui Dynasty (581 ~ 618) is a great unified dynasty that inherited the Southern and Northern Dynasties 南北朝 and initiated the Tang Dynasty in Chinese history. It lasted for 37 years.

In February 581, Emperor Jing of the Northern Zhou Dynasty 北周静帝 surrendered to Prime Minister Yang Jian 杨坚. The Northern Zhou dynasty fell. Yang Jian, Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty established his country as “Sui 隋”. The capital city is Daxing city 大兴 (now Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 陕西西安).

In 589 ad, the Sui army went south to destroy the Chen Dynasty 陈朝 and unify China. It ended the nearly 300-year-long separatist situation in China since the late Western Jin Dynasty. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty made great efforts to rule the country and created a prosperous situation of ruling by the emperor.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
Yang Jian, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty 隋文帝杨坚

The Sui Dynasty was a unified dynasty re-established by the Han nationality 汉族 after the Western Jin Dynasty 西晋. Because the royal family name is Yang 杨, it is also called Yang Sui 杨隋.

Major Historical Events

The War between Sui and Chen 隋灭陈之战

The War between Sui and Chen was the unification war at the end of the northern and Southern Dynasties. After the death of Emperor Xuan of the Northern Zhou Dynasty 北周宣帝 in 580, Yang Jian, the Minister of power, abolished Emperor Jing of the Northern Zhou Dynasty the following year. He called himself Emperor, namely Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty.

In the war of unification of the Sui Dynasty, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty Yang Jian ordered King Jin Yang Guang 晋王杨广 to command more than 500000 water and land armies to attack and destroy the Chen Dynasty in Jiangnan. This battle forced Chen Shubao 陈叔宝, the empress of Chen, to surrender and Chen died. And successively recruited the Lingnan 岭南 and other regions.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
The War between Sui and Chen 隋灭陈之战

Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty completed the unification. The Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties, which had been in chaos for nearly 400 years, were successfully ended.

Rule of the Emperor 开皇之治

Rule of the Emperor refers to the prosperous era created by Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty Yang Jian on the basis of the Northern Zhou Dynasty after the establishment of the Sui Dynasty. At this time, the political stability, social stability, people’s livelihood, and cultural prosperity.

In order to consolidate unification, Yang Jian formulated a new system. He carried out a series of reforms in the central and local political system, taxation, land system, law, currency, foreign relations, and other aspects. At the same time, many far-reaching systems have been created and developed, creating a new situation for a generation.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
Rule of the Emperor 开皇之治

Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty also implemented some extremely beneficial measures economically. Since he established his country, he has taken rich countries as his primary goal. Light corvee and low taxes to solve the people’s difficulties. While ensuring the national tax revenue, we should stabilize people’s livelihood.

Since the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the registered residence was unclear and the tax revenue was unstable. So in 585, the immigration law was implemented to conduct a national household survey. Increase national taxes, improve the economy, and eliminate the accumulated disadvantages of concealing registered residence since the Wei, Jin, Southern, and Northern Dynasties.

The country is peaceful and the society is prosperous, and the people in the north and South can rest. The number of households has increased greatly, and the abundance of warehousing is also rare in history. Society presents unprecedented prosperity.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
Sample transmission 输籍定样

A Prosperous Ara of a Great Cause 大业盛世

In the early days of the reign of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty 隋炀帝, the national strength was still strong. At the beginning of his accession to the throne, Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty decided to build Luoyang, dig the Sui and Tang Grand Canal 隋唐大运河 connecting north and south China, build galloping roads and build the Great Wall 长城.

So as to drive the economic, social, and cultural exchanges and business development between the Central Plains and the north and south regions. And launched a campaign around, expanding the territory of the Sui Dynasty.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
Sui and Tang Grand Canal 隋唐大运河

However, because Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty was too eager for success and profit, these measures opposed society and caused some damage.

The mutiny of Jiangdu 江都兵变

In the late period of Emperor Yang’s accession to the throne, Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty imposed excessive levies and became militaristic. This endless burden of conscription, military service, and corvee has harassed farmers across the country. And push the social economy into a desperate situation. The peasant uprising finally broke out in an all-around way.

The surging peasant uprising fundamentally shook the rule of the Sui Dynasty. Bureaucrats and landlords across the country also took advantage of the opportunity to set up troops, and the country was in a state of separatism.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
Emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty: extravagance and degeneration 奢侈与堕落

On April 11, 618, Yuwen Huaji 宇文化及, Sima Dekan 司马德戡 and Pei Qiantong 裴虔通 launched a mutiny. They killed Emperor Yang and made his nephew Yang Hao 杨浩 emperor.

Soon, Yuwen Huaji killed Yang Hao and claimed the throne by himself, with the country name Xu 许. After that, Yuwen Huaji became the public enemy of the world and was chased by various warlords.

Li Yuan 李渊 set up troops in Jinyang and occupied Chang’an. Yang You 杨侑, the third grandson of emperor Yang of Sui, was established as emperor, namely Emperor Gong of Sui. Li Yuan became prime minister and became king of the Tang Dynasty.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
The mutiny of Jiangdu 江都兵变

On June 12, 618, Li Yuan forced emperor Gong of the Sui Dynasty to abdicate. On June 18, Li Yuan officially proclaimed himself Emperor and established the Tang Dynasty. The Sui dynasty fell.

Important Influences

Establish the imperial examination system

In 587, Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty officially established the subject examination system to replace the nine-grade system. Since then, officials have been elected regardless of family status. At the beginning of the imperial examination system 科举制, it was stipulated that each state would send three people to the central government each year to take the examinations of scholars and Ming classics.

Sui Dynasty 隋朝
The imperial examination 科举考试结束后放榜

In 606, Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty added the Jinshi 进士 Section, and the imperial examination system was officially formed. At that time, a complete set of national talent selection systems was formed, including the general plan of the scholar 秀才 examination, the current affairs and policies of the Jinshi examination, and the classics and skills of the person well versed in Chinese classics 明经.

Business development

Chang’an is not only the national political and economic center but also the international metropolis. Chang’an has two cities: metropolis 都会 and Liren 利人, which are large-scale and prosperous. This was rare in the world at that time.

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