Shu Han 蜀汉

The Han State of three kingdoms period 三国时期


Chinese Name: 蜀汉

English Name: Shu Han, The Han State

Other Name:Shu 蜀,Liu Shu 刘蜀,Ji Han 季汉

Duration: About 221 AD – 263 AD

King: Liu Bei 刘备,Liu Shan 刘禅

Shu Han 蜀汉
Shu Han group 蜀汉集团

Brief Introduction

Shu Han (May 15, 221 – 263), was one of the separatist regimes during the Three Kingdoms period. In 221 A.D., Liu Bei 刘备 became emperor in Chengdu 成都, with the country name of Han. He was known as “Shuhan 蜀汉” in history, abbreviated as “Shu”, also known as “Liu Shu 刘蜀” and “Ji Han 季汉”.

It was destroyed by Wei in 263. There are two emperors in total, and the state has been in power for 43 years.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Liu Bei 刘备

The country name of the Shu Han regime is “Han” (Liu Bei claimed to be the continuation of the Han Dynasty). Because the regime it established was based on Shu, it was often called “Shu”. Later generations have gradually become accustomed to calling their country by its place. And in order to recognize the Han Dynasty regime established by Liu Bei, is called Shu Han.

Major Historical Events

Oath of the Peach Garden 桃园三结义

Shu Han 蜀汉
Oath of the Peach Garden 桃园三结义

At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the government was corrupt. Coupled with successive years of famine, people live in great hardship. Liu Bei intended to save the people, and Zhang Fei 张飞 and Guan Yu 关羽 were willing to work together with Liu Bei. With the same ambition, the three chose the peach garden behind zhangfei village. At this time, peach blossoms are in full bloom and the scenery is beautiful.

Zhang Fei prepared a green ox and white horse as a sacrifice, burned incense for worship, and took the oath. Three people recognized their brothers by the age of year. Liu Bei was the eldest brother, Guan Yu was the second, and Zhang Fei was the youngest brother.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Romance of the Three Kingdoms 三国演义

This is the famous “Oath of the Peach Garden” of Shu Han in the romance of the Three Kingdoms 三国演义. This event is not seen in historical data, but it is the most widely spread and far-reaching story.

Repeated a Whole-Hearted Invitation 三顾茅庐

“Repeated a Whole-Hearted Invitation” is the story of Liu Bei’s visit to Zhuge Liang 诸葛亮 in Shu Han. Liu Bei visited Zhugeliang three times and asked him to come out and help him get the world.

At the end of the Han Dynasty, the Yellow turban uprising 黄巾起义 led to chaos. Cao Cao occupied the imperial court, and Sun Quan 孙权 supported the eastern Wu. Once, Liu Bei was defeated in the Central Plains, so he had to flee to Jingzhou and attach himself to Liu Biao 刘表.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Zhuge Liang 诸葛亮

In order to revive the Han Dynasty and seize the world, Liu Bei recruited talents everywhere. Zhuge Liang was recommended to him. He is not only knowledgeable, but also talented. So Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei took gifts to ask Zhuge Liang to come out of the mountain to assist him.Although Zhugeliang lived a peaceful life, he was very concerned about national affairs. In order to understand Zhuge Liang’s talent, Liu Bei made a special visit.

It happened that Zhuge Liang went out that day, and Liu Bei had to turn back disappointed. Soon, the three braved the heavy wind and snow to invite for the second time. Unexpectedly, Zhuge Liang went out for a stroll again.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Repeated a Whole Hearted Invitation 三顾茅庐

After some time, Liu Bei ate vegetarian food for three days and visited Zhuge Liang for the third time. At that time, Zhuge Liang was sleeping. Liu Bei didn’t dare to disturb him. He stood until Zhuge Liang woke up, and then sat down and talked with each other.

Zhuge Liang was moved by Liu Bei’s sincerity. After that, Zhuge Liang became Liu Bei’s close assistant and gave him strong support.

Battle of Yizhou 益州之战

The battle of Yizhou was a war between Liu Bei and Liu Zhang 刘璋 to capture Yizhou 益州 in the late Eastern Han Dynasty.Since the battle of Chibi 赤壁之战, Liu Bei has owned Jingzhou 荆州 and has intended to attack Yizhou. At this time, Liu Zhang was under the control of Zhang Lu 张鲁, who defended Hanzhong. There was also a powerful Cao Cao 曹操 who intended to attack Hanzhong, posing a threat to Shu.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Battle of Yizhou 益州之战

So Zhang Song 张嵩 persuaded Liu Zhang to welcome Liu Bei to Sichuan to enhance his strength and self-protection. Liu Zhang accepted his suggestion and invited Liu Bei to enter Shu. Liu Bei had a good relationship with Liu Zhang in the early stage after entering Sichuan. Liu Zhang gave soldiers to Liu Bei and asked him to supervise the Baishui army and let him attack Zhang Lu. When Liu Bei arrived at Jiameng 葭萌, he stopped moving forward.

In December of the 17th year of Jian’an 建安 (212), Liu Bei broke with Liu Zhang and launched a war. Liu Bei has been approaching Chengdu, and Zhuge Liang, Zhang Fei and Zhao Yun 赵云 have also entered Sichuan 四川 to help in the war.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Zhao Yun 赵云

However, Liu Bei’s army was blocked in Luocheng 雒城 for a year. It was not until May of the 19th year of Jian’an (214) that Liu Bei besieged Chengdu that Liu Zhang surrendered to Liu Bei.

The extinction of Shu Han 蜀汉灭亡

In the late period of Shu Han, Jiang Wei’s 姜维 northern expedition made the national strength of Shu Han consume a lot. Ministers began to oppose the northern expedition. Jiang Wei felt great pressure and dared not return to Chengdu. He stationed his fields in Dazhong 沓中, reserved military funds, and continued to plan the northern expedition.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Liu Shan 刘禅

In 263, Jiang Wei received the news that Zhong Hui 钟会 was in charge of the guanzhong. The above table shows that Liu Shan 刘禅 dispatched soldiers to garrison the dangerous place. But Huang Hao 黄皓listened to the ghost and told Liu Shan that the enemy would not come. The Minister of Shu Han didn’t know about it. It was not until the Wei army attacked Shu Han all the way and invaded Hanzhong 汉中 that Liu Shan sent people to rescue, but it was too late. Shu Han perished.

Important Influences

agricultural development 农业发展

Shu Han 蜀汉

During the Three Kingdoms period, the agricultural development of Shu Han not only effectively improved the efficiency of agricultural production, but also played an important role in the sustainable development of agricultural production and even the economic structure of Shu region, and then had a great impact on future generations through a series of measures such as improving and popularizing agricultural instruments and improving water conservancy and irrigation.

Social and economic development 社会经济发展

In the Warlord’s scuffle in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the social economy of Yizhou area was not greatly damaged.

Shu Han 蜀汉
Social and economic development经济社会

At the beginning of Liu Bei’s control over Yizhou, the economy in Central Sichuan was still relatively good. Since then, although the economic development has been affected by the successive northern expeditions. But until the country was subjugated, the social economy was not in crisis.

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