Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇

Opening the basic pattern of China’s political system for more than 2000 years


Chinese Name: 秦始皇

English Name: Qin Shi Huang

Other Names: Ying Zheng嬴政, Zhao Zheng赵政, Zu Long祖龙

Born: 259 BCE

Died: 210 BCE

Achievements: Founder of the Qin Dynasty, First Emperor of a Unified China

Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇

Brief Biography of Qin Shi Huang

Ying Zheng, the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, was an outstanding politician, strategist and reformer in ancient China. He was a political figure who completed the unification of China for the first time. He was also the first emperor in China.

As the son of King Zhuang Xiang(庄襄王) of Qin Dynasty and Zhao Ji(赵姬). Ying Zheng was born in Handan(邯郸), the capital of the state of Zhao(赵), and then returned to the state of Qin. He succeeded to the throne in 247 BCE when he was 13 years old.

From 230 to 221 BCE, the six countries of Han韩, Zhao赵, Wei魏, Chu楚, Yan燕 and Qi齐 were successively destroyed, the great cause of unifying China was completed, and a centralized and unified multi-ethnic country, the Qin Dynasty, was established.

In 221 BCE, after Qin unified the six countries, Ying Zheng, King of Qin, proclaimed himself “Emperor皇帝”. He was the first monarch to use the title of “Emperor皇帝” in Chinese history, so he called himself “First Emperor始皇帝”.

At the same time, different officials are set up in the central government to manage state affairs. Then unify the text, currency and weights and measures.

Attack the Huns in the north, invade Baiyue in the South and build the great wall; Build Lingqu to connect the Yangtze River and Zhujiang River systems.

But in his later years, Qin Shihuang sought immortality and dreamed of longevity. He brutally oppressed the people and shook the foundation of the rule of the Qin Dynasty.

In 210 BC, Qin Shihuang died in Xingtai dune on his way to the East.

Qin Shi Huang annexed the other six countries

In a total of 10 years from the attack on Han in 230 BC to the destruction of Qi in 221 BC, Ying Zheng successively eliminated the six countries of Han韩, Zhao赵, Wei魏, Chu楚, Yan燕 and Qi齐 in order, ending the situation of more than 500 years of vassal separatist disputes in China since the Spring and Autumn Period(春秋时期).

Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇

Qin Shi Huang built the Great Wall

After Qin destroyed the six kingdoms, he began to build the Great Wall in the north. At that time, the Central Plains had just been unified, and the original aristocratic forces in various places were still very strong. If the traffic and links between the central and various places were not maintained, the country would be in a situation of re division at any time. Therefore, the traffic and links between the central and various places and other counties and counties must be improved as soon as possible. Therefore, roads must be built as soon as possible.

Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇
Qin Great Wall秦长城

The Great Wall was built to protect the lives and property of the people on the northern border and to reduce the burden on the people; Because the Huns were nomadic, their cavalry had a wide range of activities. Without the Great Wall, they needed many troops to defend, which would add a great burden to the people. He did not create the Great Wall. He just connected the original Great Wall to the north of Qin, Zhao and Yan.

Qin Shi Huang Burying Confucian焚书坑儒

Qin Shi Huang burned books and killed “more than 460 violators” in 213 BC and 212 BC.

Burn books

In 213 BC, Emperor Qin Shi Huang adopted Lisi’s suggestion and ordered the burning of the historical records of other countries other than the records of Qin, and the private collections of poems and books that did not belong to the doctor’s office were also burned within a time limit.

Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇

Bury Confucians

In 212 BC, Qin Shi Huang wanted to live forever and needed fairy medicine. After the alchemist’s Lu Sheng and Hou Sheng failed to seek immortality for Qin Shi Huang, they privately talked about Qin Shihuang’s personality, governance, and seeking immortality, and then fled with a huge amount of money for seeking immortality. Qin Shi Huang was furious when he knew about it, so he moved his anger to the alchemist and ordered a search and interrogation in the capital. 460 people were arrested and buried alive.

Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇

Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang mausoleum was built from the year of emperor Zhengyuan of Qin Dynasty (247 BC) to the second year of Qin II (208 BC), which lasted 39 years. It is the first large-scale and well-designed imperial mausoleum in Chinese history. There are double rammed-earth city walls inside and outside, symbolizing the imperial city and palace city of Xianyang, the imperial capital.

Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇

Qin Shihuang mausoleum is one of the largest, strangest and richest imperial tombs in the world. It fully shows the artistic talent of the working Han people in ancient China more than 2000 years ago and is the pride and precious wealth of the Chinese nation.

Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇
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